What are the Types of Tyres Used in a Vehicle?

Tyres are an important part of an automobile vehicle. These tyres need to be chosen especially depending on the engine performance and design. In this article, I will discuss the types of tyres used in an automobile vehicle.


What are tyres

The Tyre is mounted on the wheel rim. It has to carry the vehicle load and provide a cushioning effect by absorbing flexing actions. It must provide a minimum noise, while the wheel is turning on the road. It resists the tendency for the vehicle to oversteer and turn into the blend while cornering.

Tyres are also important as they take major road shocks from the road. Tyres provide a better and more comfortable ride while riding on the roads. It is specially made of rubber material and can be expandable. Also, the maintenance of the tyres is important.

Types of tyres

The tyres may be the following types

  1. Tube tyre
  2. Tubeless tyre

Tube Tyre

It is a traditional tire. It encloses a tube in which air is forced to high pressure as a cushioning medium. The outer portion of the tire which rolls on the road is made of synthetic rubber and it is called trade. At the inner edges, beads are formed by reinforcing with steel wires.

The beds act as strong shoulders for bearing against the wheel rim. Rayon cords are formed into several piles. The treads provide resistance against slipping and thicker surfaces at the other periphery.

Nowadays tube tires are not in use as it has disadvantages. So, the tires need to be upgraded. In tube tires, the installation process and repair process are very difficult, and also, the length adjustment of the tube tires is minimal.

Tubeless Tires

The tubeless tire does not enclose the tube. The air under pressure is filled in the tire itself. The inner construction of this tire is almost the same as that of the tube tire. A non-return valve is fitted to the rim through which air is forced inside the tire.

The tubeless tires are lighter and run cooler than the tube tires. The main advantage of a tubeless tire is that it retains air for a long period even after being punctured by a nail, provided the nail remains in the tire. Also, any hole in the tubeless tire can be repaired simply by rubber plugging.

The tubeless and tube tires are called pneumatic tires, in which air is forced inside the tube itself or in a tube that is fitted into the tire. In both cases, the air is a cushioning medium. But in solid tubes, it is not so. Neither the air forced inside the tire nor the tube is enclosed inside it. The tire is completely solid and is mounted on the wheel rim, it runs for a long time.

Even since man invented the wheel, things began to move. Centuries later John Boyd Dunlop invested in the pneumatic tire and wheels moved faster and better. Then Dunlop India brought tire manufacturers to India in a big way.

Construction of Tyre

The Tyre construction is divided into two classes –

  • Cross-ply tire construction
  • Radial ply tire construction

In the cross-ply tire construction, the alternative layers of cords run in opposite diagonal directions. It is also known as cross-bias tire construction. This type of tire has better wear and road-holding characteristics. But they must not be fitted on the front wheels only.

In Radial ply tire construction, the cords run radially from bead to bead.

Components of Tyres


Tread –  The shoulder-to-shoulder width of the tire represents the trade. Natural as well as synthetic rubber is used for the trade of the tire. Natural rubber helps the tire to stay cooler during running.

Breaker- The two top piles of the tire are referred to as breakers. They are widely spaced as compared to the other piles. This pile helps in spreading the shocks received from the road.

Casing- The tire casings are made up of layers of cord impregnated with rubber. The number of layers of cord varies according to the use of the tire. Motor car tires usually have 4-6 piles. Heavy-duty truck and bus tires may have up to 22 piles whereas for earthmoving machinery the tire may have up to 34 piles.

Side walls- The side walls are of rubber compound which serves as a protective covering to the casing. A tire may have a black or white side wall. Both the side walls have the same performance as the tire.

Beads- Coils of wires represent the beds. These wires are of high-tensile steel which is built into the edges of the tire to give strong edges to press against the inner edge of the rim. 


Tires are as important as the engine in a vehicle. Without the tires, the movement of the vehicle on the road is not possible. Depending upon the car and the usage of the car on the road, the size, and the type are decided. So, the next time use wisely and provide better for the car.

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