Types of Tyres

Definition-   

The
Tyre is mounted on the wheel rim. It has to carry the vehicle load and provide
a cushioning effect by absorbing flexing actions. It must provide a minimum noise,
while the wheel is turning on the road. It resists the tendency for the vehicle
to oversteer and turn into the blend while cornering.


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Types
of tires-
  

The tires may be the following types-

Tube tire-   

It is a traditional tire. It encloses a
tube in which air is forced to high pressure as a cushioning medium. The
outer portion of the tire which rolls on the road is made of synthetic rubber
and it is called trade. At the inner edges, beads are formed by reinforcing
with steel wires. The beds act as strong shoulders for bearing against the
wheel rim. Rayon cords are formed into a number of piles. The treads provide
resistance against slipping and thicker surfaces at the other periphery.


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Tubeless
tire-   

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The tubeless tire does not enclose
the tube. The air under pressure is filled in the tire itself. The inner
construction of this tire is almost the same as that of the tube tire. A
non-return valve is fitted to the rim through which air is forced inside the
tire.

The tubeless
tires are lighter and run cooler than the tube tire. The main advantage of a
tubeless tire is that it retains air for a long period even after being
punctured by a nail, provided the nail remains in the tire. Also, any hole in the
tubeless tire can be repaired simply by rubber plugging.

 


Summary-  

The tubeless and tube tires are called
pneumatic tires, in which air is forced inside the tube itself or in a tube
that is fitted into the tire. In both cases, the air is a cushioning medium. But
in solid tubes, it is not so. Neither the air forced inside the tire nor the
tube is enclosed inside it. The tire is completely solid and is mounted on the
wheel rim, it runs for a long time.

Even since
man invented the wheel, things began to move. Centuries later John Boyd Dunlop
invested in the pneumatic tire and wheels moved faster and better. Then Dunlop
India brought tire manufacturers to India in a big way.

Tyre
Construction- 

  The Tyre construction is
divided into two classes –

  • Cross-ply tire construction

  • Radial ply
    tire construction

In the cross-ply tire construction, the alternative layers of cords run in opposite diagonal
directions. It is also known as cross-bias tire construction. This type of
tire has better wear and road-holding characteristics. But they must not be
fitted on the front wheels only.

In Radial
ply tire construction, the cords run radially from bead to bead.


The various
components of tires are as follows-

Tread –  The
shoulder-to-shoulder width of the tire represents the trade. Natural as well as
synthetic rubber is used for the trade of the tire. The natural rubber helps
the tire to stay cooler during running.

Breaker- The
two top piles of the tire are referred to as breakers. They are widely spaced
as compared to the other piles. This pile helps in spreading the shocks
received from the road.

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Casing- The
tire casings are made up of layers of cord impregnated with rubber. The number
of layers of cord varies according to the use of the tire. Motor car tires usually
have 4-6 piles. Heavy-duty truck and bus tires may have up to 22 piles whereas
for earthmoving machinery the tire may have up to 34 piles.

Side walls-
The side walls are of rubber compound which serves as a protective covering to
the casing. A tire may have a black or white side wall. Both the side walls
have the same performance as the tire.

Beads- Coils
of wires represent the beds. These wires are of high tensile steel which is
built into the edges of the tire in order to give strong edges to press against
the inner edge of the rim.

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