The automobile electrical system is a complex system that helps every part to run depending upon the battery. In this article, I will discuss the Circuits of the automobile electrical system.
Circuits of the Automobile Electrical System
The electrical system of a modern automobile consists of four main circuits and several branch circuits. The four main circuits are the generating circuit, starting circuit, ignition circuit, and lighting circuit. All the main circuits are connected and linked to the car battery, as shown in Fig.
The generating circuit is connected to one end of the car ammeter so that the meter registers in the charge direction when the current is being sent to the battery. A wire connects the other end of the ammeter to the generator directly to the cable leading to the underground pole of the battery. The starting or cracking motor is connected directly to the battery through cables and a switch to provide a low-resistance path for large currents retired by the motor. Ignition and lighting circuits are connected to the same side of the ammeter ass is the generator.
The beach circuits consist of special purpose lights, radio, gasoline gauge, heater, cigar lighter, windshield wiper, de poster, and several other accessory units. All the branch circuits are also connected to the same side of the ammeter as the generator. When the generator is not running, these circuits draw current directly from the battery or through the ammeter which reads the discharge direction, because the current through it is opposite in direction from the charging current. When the demands of the circuits exceed the generator output, the extra current is supplied by the battery directly or through the ammeter.
How the Current Flows in the Circuits of the Automobile Electrical System?
When the driver turns on the ignition switch the current flows from the battery through the ammeter. The ammeter is the indicator of the charger. The current then flows to the ignition coil. The ignition coil is used in the automobile as a step-up generator to step up the current voltage from the primary windings to the secondary windings.
The ignition coil sends the current to the condenser and the condenser. From the ignition coil, the current goes to the distributor and here the ignition circuit comes into play. The distributor then distributes the current to the spark plugs according to the ignition timing.
For starting the engine the battery directly sends the current to the starting or cranking motor. When the starting switch is on the the cranking motor then produces the high voltage and starts the engine by creating a force into the crankshaft. The other circuits include the lighting circuit, accessory circuit, instrumentation circuit, heating and cooling circuit, and power distribution circuit.
The automobile electrical system is a vital educational system that everyone should know.