Electric Power Steering or the EPS system is the most reliable and advanced car system. The EPS system depends on the motor and the battery. The sensors in this system help to indicate the direction where the driver moves the steering wheel and the torque is applied to the gearbox according to that.
In this article, I will discuss the 8 different types of EPS system and also I will discuss how this system works. Read the article till the end.
Types of EPS System
In the EPS system, the electric motor is the main component. In this system, the motor needs to generate as much torque to rotate the front wheels. The other components of this system are the battery, torque sensor, steering sensor, steering wheel, steering linkages, vehicle speed sensor, ECU, and steering gearbox.
Different types of EPS systems are used in the vehicle. Depending on the design and the safety features the types of EPS systems are-
- Colum-Driven EPS (C-EPS).
- Rack-Mounted EPS(R-EPS).
- Pinion-Assist EPS(P-EPS).
- Direct Drive EPS.
- Hybrid EPS.
- Brushless EPS.
- Software-Controlled EPS.
#1. Coloum-Drive EPS(C-EPS)
The C-EPS design allows for a compact and space-efficient implementation. This is a type of power steering system in automobiles where the electric motor responsible for power assistance is integrated directly into the steering column.
C-EPS systems are commonly found in modern vehicles as they offer benefits in terms of efficiency, space utilization, and overall vehicle performance. The electric motor is connected to the steering column. The motor generates additional torque, making steering easier, especially at low speeds or during parking maneuvers.
C-EPS systems often incorporate sensors to measure variables such as steering wheel position, vehicle speed, and torque applied by the driver. A control unit processes this information and adjusts the level of power assistance accordingly.
#2. Rack Mounted EPS(R-EPS)
In the R-EPS system, the electric motor which is the main component in an EPS system is located on the steering rack. In this system, the electric motor directly takes the signal from the ECU and generates the torque inside it.
The electric motor is directly linked to the steering rack, ensuring that the power assistance is applied directly to the wheels. The placement of the electric motor on the steering rack enables a quick and direct response to driver input. This responsiveness enhances the overall steering feel and agility of the vehicle.
#3. Pinion-Assist EPS(P-EPS)
In the P-EPS system, the electric motor is situated in the steering gearbox, especially in the pinion gear. This system allows the electric motor to drive the output shaft, and the pinion gear to deliver the direction to the vehicle.
P-EPS provides power assistance by exerting force on the pinion gear. This assistance makes it easier for the driver to turn the steering wheel, especially at lower speeds or during parking maneuvers. This system is more efficient as it turns the wheel with less effort and less power.
The motor is located in the steering gearbox allowing this system to produce much power. The fuel economy and the power generated by the engine are much higher in this system.
#4. Direct Drive EPS
In the Direct Drive EPS system, the equipment like the gearbox or the belt is not required. Fewer components are used in this system and the system relies on the sensors and the direct torque generated by the motor. This system is characterized by the integration of the electric motor directly into the steering mechanism, aiming to provide a more direct and efficient steering experience.
Direct Drive EPS systems can incorporate sophisticated sensors and control algorithms to dynamically adjust the level of power assistance based on factors such as vehicle speed, driving conditions, and driver input.
#5. Hybrid EPS
The Hybrid EPS system is a type of EPS system where the Hydraulic and the Electric power steering system works together. This hybrid approach aims to optimize the advantages of both systems, providing an efficient and adaptable solution for varying driving conditions.
This system combines the electric motor with a hydraulic power steering system. The electric motor in Hybrid EPS operates only when assistance is needed, contributing to energy efficiency and fuel savings compared to traditional hydraulic power steering systems that run continuously.
The high-speed cars or the cars needed in F1 racing require the hybrid EPS system. In the event of a failure or when additional power is required, Hybrid EPS systems typically have a backup hydraulic system to ensure steering functionality. This provides a level of redundancy and reliability in case of electrical or electronic system malfunctions.
#6. Brushless EPS
In a Brushless EPS system, traditional brushes and commutators, which are components found in brushed electric motors, are replaced with a brushless motor design. Brushless motors typically have a longer lifespan and reduced wear compared to their brushed counterparts.
Brushless motors are known for their higher efficiency in converting electrical energy into mechanical power. These electric motors provide more precise control over the electric power delivery, allowing for smoother and more accurate adjustments in power assistance.
#7. Software-Controlled EPS
Software is the most reliable and safe option when it comes to operation. In the Software-Controlled EPS system, a sophisticated software algorithm is used to regulate and optimize power assistance. Unlike traditional hydraulic power steering, which uses mechanical systems, Software-Controlled EPS employs electronic sensors and a computerized control unit to enhance steering performance.
The software algorithms continuously analyze sensor data to determine the most appropriate level of power assistance for the given driving conditions. These sensors provide real-time data, enabling the control unit to make dynamic adjustments to the power assistance level.
Conclusion on Types of EPS System
In the EPS system, the electric motor is the main component. Depending on the design and the features of a vehicle, the EPS system changes. The hybrid EPS system is the most reliable and safest option for car owners, as many car companies use this system in their cars. I hope you will like the article.