How Inspection of Engine Components is Done After the Engine Dismantle.

Inspection of engine components is necessary after the engine is dismantled. The various parts are inspected in this process. In this article, I will discuss the components of the engine that need to be inspected. 
Inspection of Engine Components

Inspection of Engine Components

The inspection procedure is detailed in the following paragraphs and covers the complete overhaul of the engine with that unit taken out of the vehicle. Before commencing the inspection and repair operations, the following inspections should be kept in mind. 
> During and immediately after disassembly, inspect the cylinder block and head for evidence of water leakage or damage after washing them clean, inspect more closely.
> Wash and clean all the disassembled parts. Remove the grease and the carbon particles. Be sure to the dirt and clean the passages of the water jackets.
> Use compressed air to clean internal engine oil holes and passages.
> Do not disturb the sets of combinations of valves, bearings, bearing caps, etc.
The other important components of the engine are discussed in the article below. 

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head needs to be examined in a proper manner. The process is- 
> Remove all the carbon from the combustion chamber.
> Check the cylinder head for cracks in the intake and exhaust ports, combustion chamber, and head surfaces.
> Check the flatness of the gasket surface. For checking the surface location use the perfect tool recommended by the owner guide. If the distortion limit of 0.05 mm is exceeded, correct the gasket surface plate using an abrasive paper of about 400(waterproof silicon carbide abrasive paper). Place the paper over the surface plate and rub the gasket surface to grind off the uneven spots. Should this fall to reduce the thickness gauge readings within the limit, replace the cylinder head.  Leakage of the combustion gases from the gasket joint often occurs due to a wrapped gasket surface. Such leakage results in a reduced power output. 
> Check the flatness of the manifold seating faces.
Check the seating faces of the cylinder head.
Check the seating faces of the cylinder head.

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Engine in Hindi – इंजन क्या है?

The engine in Hindi- एक इंजन एक ऐसा उपकरण है जो उचित अनुक्रम बनाए रखते हुए और एक ऊर्जा को दूसरी ऊर्जा में परिवर्तित करके अपनी गतिविधि को बार-बार दोहरा सकता है। यहाँ रासायनिक ऊर्जा को यांत्रिक ऊर्जा में परिवर्तित किया जाता है। पर मेरे लेख पढ़ें

Engine in hindi
इंजन क्या है?


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Fuel Injector Nozzle Types | Full Details.

A fuel injection nozzle is a component of an internal combustion engine that is responsible for delivering fuel into the engine’s combustion chamber. The nozzle is designed to atomize the fuel into a fine mist, which improves combustion efficiency and reduces emissions.

In this article, I will discuss the types of fuel injector nozzles. 

Fuel injector nozzle types

The choice of fuel injection nozzle depends on the engine’s design, performance requirements, and fuel type. There are several types of fuel injection nozzles:

1. Single-hole nozzle 

Single hole fuel injector nozzle.
Single-hole nozzle


The single-hole nozzle has one hole drilled centrally through its body which is closed by the nozzle valve. The hole can be of any diameter from 0.2 mm upwards. A variation of this type, shown in Fig, is known as the conical end nozzle. In this case, the single hole is bored at an angle to the vertical center line of the valve as required. 

2. Multi-hole nozzle 

Multi-hole fuel injector nozzle.
Multi-hole nozzle


The multi-hole nozzle can have a varying number of holes drilled in the bulbous end under the valve seating, their actual number, size, and disposition are dependent upon the requirements of the engine concerned.

3. Long stem nozzles

long-stem fuel injector nozzle
Long-stem nozzles


For direct injection engines where, owing to limited space between the valves in the cylinder head, it is not possible to provide adequate cooling for the standard short stem nozzle, an alternative form of a nozzle with a small diameter extension has been developed.

4. Pintle nozzles

Pintle fuel injector nozzle.
Pintle nozzle


In the case of the pintle nozzle which is designed for use in engine combustion chambers of the air cell, swirl chamber, or pre-combustion type, the valve stem is extended to form a pin or pintle which protrudes through the mouth of the nozzle body. By modifying the size and shape of this pintle, sprays varying from a hollow parallel-sided pencil form up to a hollow cone with an angle of 60° or more can be provided.

Diesel Fuel Filters | All You Have to Know.

D(caps)iesel fuel filters are an essential component of a diesel engine’s fuel system. They are responsible for removing impurities and contaminants from the diesel fuel before it enters the engine. Diesel fuel contains various impurities such as water, dirt, rust, and other contaminants that can damage fuel injectors and other engine components. The diesel fuel filters trap these contaminants and prevent them from reaching the engine.
Diesel fuel filters.
Diesel fuel filters.


In this article, I will discuss full details about diesel fuel filters. 

Diesel fuel filters

Dirt carried in the fuel is recognized as a prime source of trouble and inefficiency in diesel engine operation, as it is the cause of wear in the fuel injection pump and nozzles. The fuel injection pump is a sturdy, well-designed piece of equipment that will give trouble-free service for many thousands of hours running, provided the fuel is clean, but if dirt, especially fine dust, is allowed to pass into the system in the fuel, then wear follows with it irregular running and loss of power; maintenance costs will become heavy and engines will need frequent attention. Where sedimentation in the supply tank can be efficiently carried out, this will greatly reduce the amount of dirt carried in the fuel. Under working conditions, however, it is absolutely essential that the fuel be properly filtered before entering the injection pump.

Diesel fuel filters- method of operation- 

The fuel enters the filter bowl through the inlet connection, then passes through the filter element and leaves the filter through the outlet orifice completely clean. In multi-stage (dual) filters, the fuel oil flows first through the primary filter and then through the secondary micro filter before continuing to the fuel injection pump.


Prior to putting it into operation or after cleaning and changing the filter element the filter must be filled with fuel oil through the filler plug orifice on the filter cover. After filling, the filler plug should be replaced immediately and the filtered air vented.

Diesel fuel filters diagram.
Diesel fuel filters diagram.


The importance of care in replacing the element, and avoiding getting dirt on the clean side of the filter, cannot be over-emphasized, as many complaints of fuel pump element wear can be traced to a lack of care in the servicing of filters. When choking takes place, this is usually found to be due to a waxy sludge which is deposited from the fuel. If filters are found to choke in an unreasonably short time this will probably point to an unsatisfactory fuel supply or storage tank installation and should be taken to find out how and a what point an undue amount of impurities can enter the system.

Diesel Fuel Injection System | Full Details.

The diesel fuel injection system is the most complicated and crucial component in working the CI engine. The engine performance, power o/p, economy, etc greatly depend on the fuel-injection system’s effectiveness.
Diesel Fuel Injection System.
Diesel Fuel Injection System.


I will discuss the diesel fuel injection system. 

Diesel Fuel Injection System

The fuel system of a diesel engine consists of many components. The main difference between the fuel system of a diesel engine and that of a petrol engine is that the fuel system of a diesel engine consists of an injector, instead of a carburetor, the remaining items being the same.
In a diesel engine, only the air is sucked and compressed inside the cylinder. At the end of the compression stroke, the diesel fuel is injected by an injector in the compressed air, which ignites due to the heat of compression and gives a power pulse to the piston. The fuel pump delivers fuel at comparatively low pressure to the injector. Every cylinder is fitted with an injector. The quantity of fuel to be injected is controlled by the injector. If less fuel is injected, less power will be developed and the engine will run slowly.  
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With the effective compression ratio of 14:1, the initial temperature of 60 degrees Celsius, and assuming true adiabatic compression, the resulting temperature at T.D.C would be 675 degrees Celsius. These conditions would be approximately attained at fuel load and full speed. This temperature of 675 degrees Celsius is more than sufficient to ignite diesel fuels, which have self-ignition temperatures in the air at atmospheric pressure ranging from 350 degrees Celsius to 450 degrees Celsius. 

Requirements of a diesel fuel injection system- 

Fuel system of a diesel engine.
The fuel system of a diesel engine.


The purpose of carburetion & fuel injection is the same i.e. preparation of the combustible charge. But in the case of carburetion, fuel is atomized by processes relying on the air speed greater than the fuel speed at the fuel nozzle. In contrast, in fuel injection the fuel speed at the point of delivery is greater than the airspeed to atomize the fuel. The functional requirements of an injection system are listed below;
  1. The introduction of the fuel into the combustion chamber should take place within a precisely defined period of the cycle.
  2. The metering of the amount of fuel injected per cycle should be done very accurately.
  3. The quantities of fuel metered should vary to meet the changing load & speed requirements.
  4. The injection rate should be such that it results in the desired heat-release pattern.
  5. The injected fuel must be broken into very fine droplets.
  6. Proper spray pattern to ensure rapid mixing of fuel & air.
  7. The beginning & end of the injection should be sharp.
  8. Timing the injection of the fuel correctly in the cycle so that maximum power is obtained, ensuring economy & clean burning.
  9. Uniform distribution of fuel droplets throughout the combustion chamber.
To accomplish these requirements the following functional elements are required in a fuel injection system- 

1. Pumping element- 

To move the fuel from the fuel tank to the cylinder & piping etc.

2. Metering elements- 

To measure & supply the fuel at the rate demanded by load & speed.

3. Metring control-

To adjust the rate of metering elements for changes in load & speed of
the engine.

4. Disturbing elements- 

To divide the metered fuel equally among the cylinders.

5. Timing controls- 

To adjust the start & the stop of injection.

6. Mixing elements- 

To atomize & distribute the fuel within the combustion chamber.

Classification of diesel fuel injection system- 

Diesel fuel injection systems deliver fuel to the engine’s combustion chamber in a diesel engine. These systems are crucial for the engine to operate efficiently and produce the desired power output. There are several types of diesel fuel injection systems, each with unique characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages. Diesel fuel injection systems can be divided into two basic types. They are- 
  1. Air injection system.
  2. Solid injection system.

1. Air injection system- 

Air injection system.
Air injection system.


In this method, fuel is forced into the cylinder using compressed air to very high pressure. The rate of fuel admission can be controlled by varying the pressure of air. The fuel is metered & pumped to the fuel valve by a camshaft-driven fuel pump. The fuel valve is opened using a mechanical linkage operated by the camshaft which controls the timing of injection. The fuel valve is also connected to a high-pressure air line fed by a multi-stage compressor which supplies air at a pressure of about 60 to 70 bar.


The advantages of an air injection system are- 
  • It provides better atomization & distribution of fuel.
  • Heavy & viscous fuels, which are cheaper can also be injected. 


This method is not used nowadays. The disadvantages are- 
  • It requires high-pressure multi-stage compression.
  • separate mechanical linkage is required to time the operation of the fuel valve. 
  • Due to the compression & the linkage the bulk of the engine increases. This also results in reduced BP due to power loss in operating the compression & linkage. 
  • In case of sticking of the fuel valve, the system becomes quite dangerous due to the presence of high-pressure air.

2. Solid injection system- 

In this method fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber without primary atomization is termed a solid injection. it is also termed a mechanical injection. Solid injection systems can be classified into four types:

1. Individual pump & injector- 

Individual pump and injector type diesel fuel injection system.
Individual pump and injector.


In this system, each cylinder is provided with one pump & one injector. Also in this system, a separate metering & compression pump is provided for each cylinder. The pump may be placed close to the cylinder as shown in fig(a) or may be arranged in a cluster as shown in Fig. In a high-pressure pump, the plunger is actuated by a cam & produces the fuel pressure necessary to open the injector valve at the correct time. The amount of fuel injected depends on the effective stroke of the plunger.

Defects in Simple Carburetor | Full Details are Explained.

Defects in the simple carburetor consist of many problems. A carburetor is a mechanical device that mixes air and fuel in an internal combustion engine. There are many difficulties with a simple carburetor. Must read the Faqs also. 
Defects in simple carburetor.
Defects in the simple carburetor.


In this article, I will discuss the defects in simple carburetors.

Defects in simple carburetor-

When the nozzle and venturi sizes of a simple carburetor are set once, it would work satisfactorily at a particular speed and load, providing the mixture, the engine has run at different speeds ranging from idling to racing. The air-fuel ratio must be varied for different speeds. Therefore, certain defects occur in the functioning of the simple carburetor. There are two basic reasons for defects as follows :
  • The correct air-fuel mixture is not supplied at different speeds.  
  • The Coefficient of discharge for air and fuel is not the same. 

If the carburetor is set to work at high speeds at full throttle opening, it will not work at low speeds at part throttle opening, because the suction created at the venturi will not be sufficient to draw fuel from the main nozzle.

Co-efficient with discharge varies with pressure head.
Co-efficient with discharge varies with pressure head.


The coefficient of discharge for air and fuel varies with the pressure head. The coefficient of discharge for air becomes about constant at a certain value of pressure head, but that for fuel increases gradually. Therefore, at higher heads, i.e., higher speeds, the air-fuel mixture will be richer and richer. A low speeds, the mixture will be lean. Thus, if the carburetor is set at one speed, it would not work satisfactorily at different speeds.

Defects in simple carburetor- 

The various difficulties in a carburetor are as follows: 
  1. Starting difficulty.
  2. Idling difficulty.
  3. Running difficulty. 
  4. Acceleration difficulty. 
  5. Weather difficulty. 
  6. Altitude difficulty. 
  7. Icing difficulty. 
All the details are discussed in the following:

1. Starting Difficulty- 

For starting the engine, a very rich mixture is required. The methods of providing the rich mixture at the time of starting are as follows :
  • Tickler.
  • Choke.
  • Adjustable area jet.
  • Separate air passage

1. Tickler- 

A tickler is simply a rod fitted in the float chamber. It can be pressed against the spring. At the time of starting, when it is pressed, it depresses the float, thus providing more fuel to come into the float chamber, and consequently, more fuel comes out from the main jet.

2. Choke Valve- 

The choke valve is fitted at the top of the air horn. It is closed at the time of starting. Thus, it closes the air supply. The whole suction is applied on the nozzle which delivers sufficient fuel making the mixture rich. The choke valve must be opened immediately after starting the engine, otherwise, the cylinder will be flooded with fuel. This is achieved by any of the following methods :
Eccentric mounting of choke.
Eccentric mounting of choke.


  • By mounting the choke eccentrically, the choke is mounted eccentrically. When the engine has started, it opens automatically due to the difference in pressure on the two sides of the choke spindle. 
Strangler on the choke.
Strangler on the choke.


  • By using a strangle valve on the choke. When the engine has started, the air pressure forces the strangler valve to open against the spring and the air enters the carburetor through it making the mixture lean. At the same time, the driver also presses the choke knobs to open the choke valve.

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Motorcycle Engine Tuning Procedure.

Motorcycle engine tuning refers to the process of adjusting various components of a motorcycle’s engine to optimize its performance. Motorcycle engine tuning is the best process to enhance engine performance. 
Motorcycle Engine Tuning
Motorcycle Engine Tuning


In this article, I will discuss motorcycle engine tuning procedures. 

Motorcycle engine tuning

Motorcycle engine tuning involves changing the air-fuel mixture, adjusting the ignition timing, or modifying the exhaust system. Proper tuning can improve the motorcycle’s power output, acceleration, and fuel efficiency. Both the changing improvements will be discussed later. 

One of the primary components of motorcycle engine tuning is adjusting the fuel-air mixture. This is done by adjusting the carburetor or fuel injection system to achieve the optimal air-to-fuel ratio. The ideal ratio depends on the engine and the operating conditions, such as temperature and altitude. A lean mixture, where there is too much air and not enough fuel, can cause the engine to run hot and can lead to damage over time. On the other hand, a rich mixture, where there is too much fuel and not enough air, can cause the engine to run poorly and can reduce fuel efficiency.

Another important component of motorcycle engine tuning is adjusting the ignition timing. This involves adjusting the timing of the spark plug to ensure that the fuel-air mixture is ignited at the optimal time. This can significantly impact the engine’s power output and overall performance. Ignition timing is typically adjusted by rotating the distributor or by using a programmable ignition system.



Modifying the exhaust system is another way to improve the performance of a motorcycle engine. The exhaust system is responsible for expelling the exhaust gases from the engine, and a well-designed exhaust system can improve the engine’s power output and overall efficiency. This can be achieved by increasing the diameter of the exhaust pipe or by using a free-flowing muffler. However, it is important to note that modifying the exhaust system can also increase the noise level of the motorcycle, which may not be desirable in all situations.

In addition to these components, several other factors can affect motorcycle engine tuning. For example, the type of spark plug used can impact the engine’s performance, as can the quality of the fuel being used. The engine’s compression ratio can also have an impact on performance, with a higher compression ratio typically leading to increased power output. Finally, the weight of the motorcycle and its components can also impact its performance, with a lighter motorcycle typically performing better than a heavier one.

Motorcycle engine tuning process- 

Motorcycle engine tuning procedure.
Motorcycle engine tuning procedure.


Tuning a motorcycle engine involves adjusting various components to optimize performance, fuel efficiency, and reliability. Here are some steps to tune a motorcycle engine:
  1. Check the air filter first. A clogged air filter restricts airflow to the engine, reducing its performance. Remove the air filter and clean or replace it if necessary.
  2. Secondly, check the spark plugs. Spark plugs ignite the fuel-air mixture in the engine cylinders. Check the condition of the spark plugs and replace them if they are worn or fouled.
  3. Adjust the carburetor with the full process. The carburetor regulates the fuel-air mixture that enters the engine. Adjust the carburetor to ensure that the fuel-air mixture is optimal for the engine’s performance.
  4. Adjust the valve clearance with the filler gauge. The valve clearance determines how much the valves open and close. Adjust the valve clearance to ensure that the engine runs smoothly and efficiently.
  5. Ignition timing determines when the spark plug fires about the piston’s position in the cylinder. Adjust the ignition timing to ensure that the spark plug fires at the optimal time for the engine’s performance.
  6. Adjust the idle speed of the engine. The idle speed is the speed at which the engine runs when it is not under load. Adjust the idle speed to ensure that the engine runs smoothly and reliably.

It’s important to note that the exact steps required to tune a motorcycle engine will vary depending on the specific make and model of the motorcycle, as well as the type of engine it has.


Tuning BS6 motorcycle engine-

Tuning a BS6 motorcycle engine is now another interesting thing. Here are some steps to tune a BS6 motorcycle engine:
  1. Check the air filter: A clogged air filter restricts airflow to the engine, reducing its performance and increasing emissions. Remove the air filter and clean or replace it if necessary.
  2. Check the spark plugs: Spark plugs ignite the fuel-air mixture in the engine cylinders. Check the condition of the spark plugs and replace them if they are worn or fouled.
  3. Adjust the fuel injection system: BS6 engines are equipped with electronic fuel injection systems that precisely control the fuel-air mixture. Adjust the fuel injection system to ensure that the fuel-air mixture is optimal for the engine’s performance and emission compliance.
  4. Check the exhaust system: The exhaust system plays a crucial role in reducing emissions from the engine. Check the condition of the exhaust system and replace it if necessary. You may also consider installing a performance-oriented exhaust system for better performance.
  5. Check the ECU: The engine control unit (ECU) controls various engine functions, including fuel injection timing, ignition timing, and emission control. Ensure that the ECU is functioning correctly and update its software if necessary.
  6. Consult a qualified mechanic: Tuning a BS6 engine requires specialized knowledge and equipment. It’s always best to consult a qualified mechanic who has experience with BS6 engines for specific guidance on tuning your motorcycle’s engine.

It’s essential to note that tuning a BS6 engine must not compromise its emission compliance, which is crucial to protecting the environment and complying with regulations.


How does motorcycle engine tuning affect changing the air-fuel mixture?

Motorcycle engine tuning involves changing the air-fuel mixture ratio to achieve optimal performance. The air-fuel mixture refers to the ratio of air to fuel that is delivered to the engine, and adjusting this ratio can have a significant impact on the engine’s performance.
  • When the air-fuel mixture is too lean, meaning there is too much air and not enough fuel, the engine may run hot and can be damaged over time. This is because a lean mixture can cause the engine to run hotter than it was designed to, which can lead to overheating and potential damage. In addition, a lean mixture can cause the engine to run poorly and can reduce fuel efficiency.
  • On the other hand, when the air-fuel mixture is too rich, meaning there is too much fuel and not enough air, the engine may run poorly and may also have reduced fuel efficiency. A rich mixture can cause the engine to run too cool, which can lead to incomplete combustion and increased emissions. It can also cause carbon buildup in the engine, which can lead to decreased performance over time.

By adjusting the air-fuel mixture to the optimal ratio, the engine can operate more efficiently and with improved performance. This can result in better acceleration, more power output, and improved fuel efficiency. It’s important to note that changing the air-fuel mixture can have significant impacts on the engine, and it should only be done by those who have a deep understanding of the engine and its components. Improper tuning can lead to damage to the engine, decreased performance, and potential safety hazards.

Carter Carburetor: Diagram, and Working Principle.

The Carter carburetor diagram is similar to the Zenith carburetor. It consists of many circuits and internal parts. Here is the carter carburetor diagram and full details-    Carter carburetor-  Carter Carburetor Company was established in 1909 and closed operation in 1985. It was founded by William Carter, who is …

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What is a SU Carburetor? How does it Work?

The SU carburetor is a type of carburetor that was widely used in British cars from the 1930s to the 1980s. “SU” stands for “Skinners Union”, the company initially designed and manufactured the carburetor. In this article, I will discuss the full details of the SU carburetor.     SU …

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What is a Choke Valve in the Carburetor?

A choke valve is an important component in a carburetor. The choke valve is usually a butterfly valve located at the entrance to the carburetor. The choke valve is usually used in the carburetor to give the engine a warm start in cold weather. 

In this article, I will discuss what is a choke valve in the carburetor? 
What is a Choke Valve in the Carburetor?


What is a choke valve in the carburetor- 

For starting the cold engine, a rich mixture is needed. To provide a rich mixture, a choke valve is fitted in the air intake passage of the carburetor. The choke valve is in the form of a circular disc like the throttle valve. This choke valve is operated to shut off partially the supply of air to the carburetor(the valve “chokes off” the air supply). During the suction stroke, less amount of air and more amount of fuel is sucked, thus a rich mixture is obtained. The quantity delivered is sufficient to produce the correct air-fuel mixture needed for starting the cold engine.