Environmental Management System for Automobiles ensures the pollution levels and managed according to that. The pollutants that come out from the exhaust and from the fuel tanks pollute the environment. In this article, I will discuss the environmental management system for automobiles.
Environment Management System for Automobiles
Environmental management system refers to the protection of our surrounding environment and the utilization of our natural resources most efficiently. Automobiles which are responsible for over 75% of the total population in India need the most attention to reduce pollution and its adverse effects on the environment.
Environmental management system for automobiles includes-
1. Pollution Control by Improvement in Design
The manufacturer ensures that the vehicles leaving the factory meet the exhaust emission standards as specified by Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989. For that specially developed low-emission carburetors are used on vehicles. Nowadays advanced fuel injection systems are used.
The specially designed fuel injection systems maintain low pollution levels. It is necessary to check to CO level emitted periodically and if necessary the engine should be turned to remain within the stipulated pollution control limits.
The air screw of the injectors are fitted in 3-wheelers and motorcycles and volume control screws fitted in scooters are specially designed for this purpose.
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2. Pollution Control by Preventive Maintenance
Though every new vehicle leaving the factory is certified to meet emission standards, the CO level in the exhaust gases may get altered over time depending upon usage and /or lack of maintenance. Such an increase in the CO level in exhaust gases not only.
pollutes the air badly but also affects the engine performance considerably. So whenever the vehicle i serviced, it is necessary to check the CO level and then rectify and tune up the engine to control this within stipulated standards. Major causes of higher CO% are under
- Rich fuel mixture
- Defective ignition
- Clogged silencer
- Improper idle speed
- Dirty/clogged air-cleaner
- Defective choke.
3. Trees Plantation
Trees are found to be very helpful in reducing air pollution caused due to automobiles. They can absorb most of the CO2 and CO emitted from automobiles. Consider the example of ‘Millbrook Providing Ground’ at Hurdfurdshaire in Central England where vehicle manufacturers from all parts of the world test their new vehicles under very difficult road conditions.
These include the most difficult kind of 48 km long roads similar to the roads existing elsewhere in the world.
- Rough road full of ditches as in South America
- Road of zig-zag lanes type as in Belgium
- Autoban Road of Germany
- Road full of stone chips as in North America
- Steeply sloped road as in California (USA)
- Hilly road amid the farms as in Yorkshire (UK)
lust imagine the condition of the environment in its surroundings. It can be a common guess that there will be very heavy air pollution. But no, it is not so! The air pollution has been controlled by over 2.5 Lakh trees around the testing laboratory and roadside. In addition to that about 8000 new trees are also planted per year.
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Emission Control System for Automobile Vehicles
Major air pollutants in automobile emissions are CO, HC’s, and NOx. Methods to control them from various sources are discussed below :
1. Control of Evaporative Losses
Hydrocarbon vapor from the fuel tank and carburetor can be controlled by using an evaporation loss control device (ELCO). This device consists of an absorbent chamber, a pressure balance valve, and a purge control valve. HC vapors from the fuel tank and carburetor are made to pass through an absorbent chamber, which consists of charcoal or foamed polyurethane. HC vapors get trapped here and can be set back to make a manifold through the purge valve.
2. Control of Crankcase Emissions
Crankcase Emissions are minimized by providing a positive crankcase ventilation system (PCV System) as shown in Fig. In such a system, fresh air flows through the crankcase and mixes with the crankcase fumes. Fumes from the crankcase, carried by fresh air, travel back to the intake manifold and are remixed with incoming fuel, hence the blowby is utilized and not wasted.
3. Control of Exhaust Emission
Exhaust emissions can be reduced by following three methods:
(A) Modification in Engine Design
Minor modifications in automobile engines can considerably reduce CO emissions. Using specially designed carburetors can also maintain low pollution levels.
(B) Improving Fuel Quality or Using Alternative Fuels
Improving fuel quality can help to reduce exhaust emissions very effectively. Using fuel having low head content can reduce the emission of lead particulates. Using a higher air-fuel ratio can also reduce the emission of CO and HC, but it will increase the NO, emission.
Some fuel additives can also be used for improving combustion performance and reducing emissions of pollutants. However, using alternative fuels like CNG is the best option to reduce pollution. CNG does not contain any harmful substances like nitrogen, lead, and Sulphur, thus there are no NO, and SO, emissions. Further CNG burns completely and does not produce CO and any odor nuisance.
(C) Trenten of Exhaust Gases
An exhaust system reactor can be used to complete the combustion, thus no CO is formed.
A catalytic converter can also be used in exhaust systems in which exhaust gases pass through over a bed of activated catalysts, which converts CO into less noxious products. But most catalysts are either poisoned or become deactivated due to lead content in gasoline. Catalytic converters also oxidize Sulphur in the fuel and form sulfur trioxide.
Microprocessor-Based Control System for Emission
With the customer’s demand to provide more and more luxurious features, the control systems of a modern automobile are becoming more and more complex. Today’s car does not only consist of an engine and a drive system. It is equipped with a lot of features, such as an air-conditioner, heater, FM radio, Television, and Internet. power steering, power window, etc.
There may be 50 or more low-tech electronic motors throughout a car. Analyzing this vast data and controlling various units is not possible for drivers. Thus, most of the controls are now microprocessor-based. They make driving easy, comfortable, and safe. Some commonly used microprocessor-based systems are-
- Electronic connectors and interconnection systems for wiring harnesses.
- Modular fuse, relay, distribution boxes etc.
- Electro-optic devices use optical fiber-based database systems for linking the telephone, navigation system, CD, and car radio.
- Engine coolant temperature sensor, throttle position sensor, fuel injector controls, etc.
- Touch screen data entry system for car phones, entertainment, and traffic management systems.
- Collision warning systems for driver information.
- Car wireless and antenna system for communication.
- Intrusion alarm and immobilization system for projection against theft.
- Smart key engine immobilizer for both 4-wheelers and 2-wheelers.
Consider the example of a collision warning system. This system uses a microprocessor, which analyses the road traffic data, vehicle’s speed, and the speed of vehicle coming from front or back and warns the driver, if vehicles are about to collide.
Conclusion on Environmental Management System for Automobiles
Implementing and maintaining an effective EMS for automobiles not only helps in achieving environmental sustainability but also enhances the overall corporate responsibility and reputation of the automotive industry. Regular reviews and updates to the EMS ensure its relevance and alignment with changing environmental priorities and regulations.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ’S)
Why is an EMS important for the automotive industry?
An EMS is crucial for the automotive industry as it helps organizations comply with environmental regulations, reduce their carbon footprint, and enhance overall sustainability. It allows companies to systematically address environmental aspects and impacts throughout the entire lifecycle of their products and processes.
How does an EMS benefit automobile manufacturers?
An EMS benefits automobile manufacturers by improving resource efficiency, reducing environmental risks and liabilities, enhancing regulatory compliance, and fostering a positive corporate image. It can lead to cost savings through energy efficiency, waste reduction, and streamlined processes.
What role does product design play in an EMS for automobiles?
Product design is crucial in an EMS as it influences the environmental impact of automobiles. Integrating eco-design principles helps minimize environmental effects throughout the product lifecycle. Considerations such as material selection, energy efficiency, and end-of-life recycling are essential in creating environmentally responsible automotive products.